7.4. Connection Pool
Establishing a new database connection is time consuming
Connection Pool - a collection of connections, which lives longer than requests
Establish several connections at the beginning
Add them to the so called 'connection pool'
Use them for request processing
After request is process the connection is returned to the pool
Normally the database connection would be established as soon as the request comes in and would thrive until disconnection on request processing end. Establishing a new database connection involves in three-way handshake (for TCP/IP connections) which can take a lot of time. Having connections which lives longer than requests improves performance. Trick here is to establish several parallel connections at the beginning, add them to the so called 'connection pool' and add use them for request processing. As soon as request does not need the connection it releases it back to the pool.
A connection pool is a standard technique used to maintain long running connections in memory for efficient re-use, as well as to provide management for the total number of connections an application might use simultaneously. Particularly for server-side web applications, a connection pool is the standard way to maintain a 'pool' of active database connections in memory which are reused across requests. 1
SQLAlchemy includes several connection pool implementations which integrate
Engine. They can also be used directly for applications that
want to add pooling to an otherwise plain DBAPI approach.
The Engine returned by the
create_engine() function in most cases has a
QueuePool integrated, pre-configured with reasonable pooling defaults:
>>> from sqlalchemy import create_engine >>> >>> >>> DATABASE = 'postgresql://myusername:mypassword@myhost:5432/mydatabase' >>> >>> engine = create_engine(DATABASE, pool_size=20, max_overflow=0)
Note, that SQLite 'memory' databases maintain their entire dataset within the scope of a single connection.
All SQLAlchemy pool implementations have in common that none of them 'pre create' connections - all implementations wait until first use before creating a connection.
This is why it's perfectly fine for
create_engine() to default to using
QueuePool of size five without regard to whether or not the
application really needs five connections queued up - the pool would only
grow to that size if the application actually used five connections
concurrently, in which case the usage of a small pool is an entirely
appropriate default behavior. 1
True, the connection pool will log informational output such as when connections are invalidated as well as when connections are recycled to the default log handler, which defaults to
sys.stdoutfor output. If set to the string "debug", the logging will include pool checkouts and checkins. Direct control of logging is also available using the standard Python logging module.
The number of connections to allow in connection pool "overflow", that is connections that can be opened above and beyond the pool_size setting, which defaults to five. this is only used with
An already-constructed instance of
Pool, such as a
QueuePoolinstance. If non-None, this pool will be used directly as the underlying connection pool for the engine, bypassing whatever connection parameters are present in the URL argument. For information on constructing connection pools manually.
Poolsubclass, which will be used to create a connection pool instance using the connection parameters given in the URL. Note this differs from pool in that you don't actually instantiate the pool in this case, you just indicate what type of pool to be used.
String identifier which will be used within the "name" field of logging records generated within the
sqlalchemy.poollogger. Defaults to a hexstring of the object's id.
Truewill enable the connection pool "pre-ping" feature that tests connections for liveness upon each checkout.
This setting causes the pool to recycle connections after the given number of seconds has passed. It defaults to -1, or no timeout. For example, setting to 3600 means connections will be recycled after one hour. Note that MySQL in particular will disconnect automatically if no activity is detected on a connection for eight hours (although this is configurable with the MySQLDB connection itself and the server configuration as well).
Pool.reset_on_returnparameter of the underlying Pool object, which can be set to the values
The number of connections to keep open inside the connection pool. This used with
QueuePoolas well as
QueuePool, a pool_size setting of 0 indicates no limit; to disable pooling, set
Number of seconds to wait before giving up on getting a connection from the pool. This is only used with
QueuePool. This can be a float but is subject to the limitations of Python time functions which may not be reliable in the tens of milliseconds.
Truecauses the pool's "queue" behavior to instead be that of a "stack", e.g. the last connection to be returned to the pool is the first one to be used on the next request. In contrast to the pool's long- standing behavior of first-in-first-out, which produces a round-robin effect of using each connection in the pool in series, lifo mode allows excess connections to remain idle in the pool, allowing server-side timeout schemes to close these connections out. Using LIFO, a server-side timeout scheme can reduce the number of connections used during non- peak periods of use. When planning for server-side timeouts, ensure that a recycle or pre-ping strategy is in use to gracefully handle stale connections.
7.4.3. Pool Implementations
poolclass argument accepts a class imported from the
sqlalchemy.pool module. Example pools are as follows:
Pool that allows at most one checked out connection at any given time.
Pool which does not pool connections.
Pool that imposes a limit on the number of open connections.
Pool that maintains one connection per thread.
Pool of exactly one connection, used for all requests.
>>> from sqlalchemy.pool import QueuePool >>> >>> >>> engine = create_engine(DATABASE, poolclass=QueuePool)
7.4.4. Keep Alive
The connection pool has the ability to refresh individual connections as well as its entire set of connections, setting the previously pooled connections as 'invalid'. A common use case is allow the connection pool to gracefully recover when the database server has been restarted, and all previously established connections are no longer functional. There are two approaches to this: pessimistic and optimistic 1.
The pessimistic approach refers to emitting a test statement on the SQL
connection at the start of each connection pool checkout, to test that the
database connection is still viable. Typically, this is a simple statement
SELECT 1, but may also make use of some DBAPI-specific method to
test the connection for liveness. The approach adds a small bit of overhead
to the connection checkout process, however is otherwise the most simple and
reliable approach to completely eliminating database errors due to stale
pooled connections. The calling application does not need to be concerned
about organizing operations to be able to recover from stale connections
checked out from the pool. It is critical to note that the pre-ping approach
does not accommodate for connections dropped in the middle of transactions
or other SQL operations. If the database becomes unavailable while a
transaction is in progress, the transaction will be lost and the database
error will be raised 1.
>>> engine = create_engine(DATABASE, pool_pre_ping=True)
The 'pre ping' feature will normally emit SQL equivalent to
each time a connection is checked out from the pool; if an error is raised
that is detected as a 'disconnect' situation, the connection will be
immediately recycled, and all other pooled connections older than the
current time are invalidated, so that the next time they are checked out,
they will also be recycled before use. This statement is not logged in the
SQL echo output, and will not show up in SQLAlchemy's engine logging
When pessimistic handling is not employed, as well as when the database is
shutdown and/or restarted in the middle of a connection's period of use
within a transaction, the other approach to dealing with stale / closed
connections is to let SQLAlchemy handle disconnects as they occur, at which
point all connections in the pool are invalidated, meaning they are assumed
to be stale and will be refreshed upon next checkout. This behavior assumes
the Pool is used in conjunction with a Engine. The Engine has logic which
can detect disconnection events and refresh the pool automatically. When the
Connection attempts to use a DBAPI connection, and an exception is raised
that corresponds to a 'disconnect' event, the connection is invalidated. The
Connection then calls the
Pool.recreate() method, effectively
invalidating all connections not currently checked out so that they are
replaced with new ones upon next checkout 1.
An additional setting that can augment the 'optimistic' approach is to set the pool recycle parameter. This parameter prevents the pool from using a particular connection that has passed a certain age, and is appropriate for database backends such as MySQL that automatically close connections that have been stale after a particular period of time 1:
>>> engine = create_engine(DATABASE, pool_recycle=3600)
Above, any DBAPI connection that has been open for more than one hour will be invalidated and replaced, upon next checkout. Note that the invalidation only occurs during checkout 1.